Why Infant Care Is Important for Both Parents

Man achieves immortality largely through his children and his work. As soon as an infant has been born, its health and welfare become the first concern of both its father and its mother. This is one of the points of difference between man and most of the lower animals; and as culture and civilization advance, we find mankind attempting to provide better and better protection and educational and vocational opportunities for children. Sir Arthur Newsholme, leading English authority on public health, states: “Infant mortality is the most sensitive index of social welfare and of sanitary improvement which we possess. If babies were well-born and well cared for, their mortality would be negligible.”

In some sections of the world the chances are not more than one in two that a newborn child will live to reach its first birthday, and in some cities of our own country within the present century approximately one child out of three died during the first year of life. In the registration area of the United States 162 infants per 1,000 born alive died during the first year of life this number had been reduced to 64.6; the corresponding rates for several other countries were as follows: Chile, 234; India, 178; Ceylon, 175; Italy 125; Japan, 124; Germany, 96.4; France, 96; England, Scotland, and Wales, 63; Sweden, 58; Norway, 55; Switzerland, 51; and New Zealand, 35.

The major causes of infant mortality among the white population at the present time are prenatal and natal diseases and injuries, respiratory diseases, and gastrointestinal diseases. The toxemia of pregnancy and syphilis are the primary causes of premature births. Adequate care during the pm natal period and modern hospital facilities for the care of premature infants are effective measures in reducing these deaths.

The same may be said concerning some of the respiratory diseases. Bronchitis, pneumonia, and other respiratory infections are serious in infants because they have little resistance against them. Hence, all infants should be safeguarded in every possible way from exposure to children and adults who may transmit colds or other infections to them. Malnutrition and the deficiency diseases lower the infant’s resistance and so contribute to the seriousness of these respiratory infections.

The diarrhea or intestinal diseases long occupied first place among the causes of infant mortality and still do so in certain countries. The marked reduction in the deaths from these diseases which has taken place has been due largely to sanitation and improved methods of infant feeding. Breast milk is the ideal food for a baby. Studies have shown that the death rate from intestinal diseases is three to ten times as high among artificially fed as among breast-fed children.

The young Women of today are physically superior to the women of previous generations and almost all of them are able to nurse their babies for at least the major part of the usual nursing period of nine months. Breast milk is desirable not only because it is easily digested and is most nutritious for the child, but also because it offers protection against diarrhea and intestinal diseases and increases resistance against measles, scarlet fever, and other common infections of infancy.

A few years ago a serious and frequently fatal blood disease of newborn infants was found to be caused by a certain incompatibility of the parent’s blood. This is dependent upon what is known as the “RH factor.” Tests can be made for this condition. If it exists, the risk to the child can be reduced by careful medical supervision and care during pregnancy.

The more important indirect causes of infant death are poverty and ignorance. Many studies have shown a direct correlation between low income of the wage earner and high infant mortality. One of these studies reports 168 infant deaths per 1,000 live births among families with an annual income of $500 or less as compared to a rate of 30 per 1,000 among families with incomes of $3,000 or more, and an increase of 20 per cent in the infant death rate in families of which the wage earner became unemployed during the depression years.

The conditions of poverty are all adverse to the survival of the delicate life of the newborn infant. On the other hand, poverty, unemployment, and larger families than can possibly be supported are frequently the result of the same sort of ignorance and irresponsibility which contribute to a high infant death rate. It has also been shown that, by instruction of the mother concerning the proper care and feeding of infants, it is possible materially to improve nutritional status, even though the family’s income is no more than relief allowance.

The US Children’s Bureau in Washington and the state and local health departments make available bulletins of information, advice, and, if necessary, public health nursing service for maternal and infant care, so that there is no longer any justification for the ignorance and neglect which has been responsible for most of the deaths of mothers and infants in the past.

Brain or Heart – How to Develop High Performing and Achieving Public Education Students

Technology has created a greater opportunity for exploring the impact of the brain. This emphasis on brain development has lead to how to creatively use brain research to improve classroom performance.

However, what about the heart of each student? How much time is developing and nurturing the desire to learn, to experience the unknown, to reach beyond their comfort zone and challenge conventional knowledge?

Over 50 years ago, Dr. Benjamin Bloom with several other educational psychologists developed what is now known as Bloom’s taxonomy. This model suggests that each individual has 3 learning domains:

  • Cognitive Learning Domain – Knowledge or The Brain
  • Psychomotor Learning Domain – Physical activity and application of knowledge or the Body
  • Affective Learning Domain – Feelings/Emotions or The Heart

As an individual who entered the teaching profession later in life (after 25 years in small business management and sales,) my professional training did not train me as to how to effectively teach and reach the affective learning domain. And now 10 years later as I work in urban schools, I still observe very little emphasis on this crucial learning domain.

The question is not whether students know that coming to school is important, during homework on time is necessary, learning to read and comprehend what they read, because they do know these things. What we should be asking is “Do these students want to come to school?” Educators must learn how to redevelop bad attitudes into positive ones.

Recent publication of the U.S. high school drop out rates demonstrate that we are not addressing the needs of our students. The U.S. public education system is the greatest opportunity for all citizens to realize their potential. We must begin to focus on their desires, their attitudes and their beliefs as much as we focus on the knowledge. Then and only then will we begin to see sustainable performance improvement.

The American Public Education System: Adjusting to a New Era of Technology and Change

The world as we know it is changing in leaps and bounds on a daily basis. Our children are growing up knowing and using iPods and computers with gigabytes of data storage for all their music and video files. High-speed Internet has become a way of life where more young people subscribe to http://www.myspace.com, read, chat, and communicate with friends online than ever before. As the Internet marketplace continues to expand rapidly, and technologies afford education access from the ease and convenience of home, it is imperative that parents and educators recognize the benefits involved in education online.

The public education system in the United States grew out of an economy based upon single income workers, zero competition from outside markets for internal education consumers, and more manufacturing jobs than service jobs. The baby boomers born during the post World War II era, enjoyed the benefits of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Servicemen’s Readjustment Act or the GI Bill of Rights, which granted affordable access to college education. The baby boomers of the United States catapulted into growth as a result of this, enjoying an unprecedented level of abundance and prosperity.

One of these baby boomers is President George W. Bush, who enacted the No Child Left Behind Act (NCBA), offering the societal challenge of making every child proficient in reading and math by 2012. A schoolteacher for more than thirty years, who now runs a management company for teacher training, described the resultant effect of this act upon the public school system as one which far exceeded the capabilities of what American public schools can currently offer.

Despite the grandiose claims of the NCBA, actual school performance began to decrease after the passage of the act and the United States, as a whole, fell behind in education.

Supplemental Educational Services

In 2004-2005, there were more than 22 million children eligible for “supplemental educational services”, which includes tutoring. About 19% of those students got those services, or roughly two out of every ten students who were not proficient in core subjects, received aid. A good analogy would be a physician telling the parents of ten children that that they need medicine to cure an illness and only two out of the ten children can receive the medicine that they need.

The need for tutoring is obviously there. Why then is the current method of tutoring inadequate? There are principally four reasons why tutoring has been ineffective:

1) Schools can recruit tutors for students in rural areas and even fewer for those students in those areas with disabilities.

2) School districts do not tell parents that tutoring is available. When letters are sent home they often arrive late and are hard to understand.

3) Tutors are not allowed into schools and do not coordinate with teachers or the curriculum in the classroom, leaving the student confused.

4) State education departments do not evaluate the quality of tutors, as the law requires.

On one hand we have American schools and students failing and in need of remediation, operating under an outdated system of education, and money going to waste, and on the other hand we have an emerging technology platform based on high speed broadband technology that is leveling the playing field for people, and companies worldwide. This technology is one that not only attracts our children, but also captivates them, so that they return to computers and multimedia repeatedly for entertainment.

Armed with this knowledge, how can we as parents and educators remain blind to the changes within our own culture for learning and acquiring knowledge and the ways in which our children are learning? Tutoring programs such as http://www.TutorHaven.com take these tools and put them to use to educate our children in a fun and engaging manner.